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  • Individual cortical neurons can selectively respond to specific environmental features, such as visual motion or faces. How this relates to the selectivity of the presynaptic network across cortical layers remains unclear. We used single-cell-initiated, monosynaptically restricted retrograde transsynaptic tracing with rabies viruses expressing GCaMP6s to image, in vivo, the visual motion-evoked activity of individual layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons and their presynaptic networks across layers in mouse primary visual cortex. Neurons within each layer exhibited similar motion direction preferences, forming layer-specific functional modules. In one-third of the networks, the layer modules were locked to the direction preference of the postsynaptic neuron, whereas for other networks the direction preference varied by layer. Thus, there exist feature-locked and feature-variant cortical networks.

  • The dentate gyrus is the main entry gate for cortical input to the hippocampus and one of the few brain areas where adult neurogenesis occurs. Several studies have shown that it is relatively difficult to induce synaptic plasticity in mature but not in newborn dentate granule cells. In the present work we have systematically addressed how classical protocols to induce synaptic plasticity affect action potential firing and intrinsic excitability in mature granule cells. We found that stimulation paradigms considered to be relevant for learning processes consistently modified the probability to generate action potentials in response to a given synaptic input in mature cells, in some paradigms even without any modification of synaptic strength. Collectively the results suggest that plasticity of intrinsic dendritic excitability has a lower induction-threshold than synaptic plasticity in mature granule cells and that this form of plasticity might be an important mechanism by which mature granule cells contribute to hippocampal function.

  • Technological resources for sustained local control of molecular effects within organs, cells, or subcellular regions are currently unavailable, even though such technologies would be pivotal for unveiling the molecular actions underlying collective mechanisms of neuronal networks, signaling systems, complex machineries, and organism development. We present a novel optopharmacological technology named molecular tattooing, which combines photoaffinity labeling with two-photon microscopy. Molecular tattooing covalently attaches a photoreactive bioactive compound to its target by two-photon irradiation without any systemic effects outside the targeted area, thereby achieving subfemtoliter, long-term confinement of target-specific effects in vivo. As we demonstrated in melanoma cells and zebrafish embryos, molecular tattooing is suitable for dissecting collective activities by the separation of autonomous and non-autonomous molecular processes in vivo ranging from subcellular to organism level. Since a series of drugs are available for molecular tattoo, the technology can be implemented by a wide range of fields in the life sciences.

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Understanding neural computation requires methods that can simultaneously read out activity on both somatic and dendritic scales. As shown by Katona el al. AO point scanning can effectively record fluorescent signal from up to 1000 points from in vitro preparation or from anesthetized animal. But the maximal scanning rate is limited by the switching time of the AO deflectors. 

All two-photon experiments were performed with Femto3D-AcoustoOpctic microscope.





Twinter Ltd. will be attending 2016 International Conference of Physiological Sciences  ,which will be held in in Beijing, China, September 25-28, 2016.We would like to invite you to find Twinter-ChangeOver  and  Femto3D-AcoustoOptic microscope ( is the first fast, 3D, two-photon microscope on the market) microscopy systems & new developments! We looking forward to meet you there. 



Twinter Ltd. will be attending 2016 Probing Neural Networks with Light: Imaging Structure & Function in the Living Brain ,which will be held in Suzhou, China  October 17-21, 2016.We would like to invite you to find Twinter-ChangeOver  and  Femto3D-AcoustoOptic microscope ( is the first fast, 3D, two-photon microscope on the market) microscopy systems & new developments! We looking forward to meet you there. 

Twinter Ltd. will be attending the Symposium for Chinese Neuroscientists Worldwide 2016 (SCNW) ,which will be held in He Fei, An Hui province, China, from July 25 to July 29, 2016 .We would like to invite you to find Twinter-ChangeOver  and  Femto3D-AcoustoOptic microscope ( is the first fast, 3D, two-photon microscope on the market) microscopy systems & new developments! We looking forward to meet you there. 

Twinter Ltd. will be attending the 5th International & The 14th National Symposium on Membrane Biology (ISMB2016) ,which will be held in Changchun, China, from August 4 to August 7, 2016 .We would like to invite you to find PhaseView  and  Femto3D-AcoustoOptic microscope ( is the first fast, 3D, two-photon microscope on the market) microscopy systems & new developments! We look forward to meet you there. 

The labeled neurons expressed GCaMP6s, which allowed to image, in vivo, the visual motion-evoked activity of individual layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons and their whole presynaptic networks across layers in the primary visual cortex of the mice. For the measurement of this large number of neurons scattered across the  width of the cortex they used a Femto3D-AO microscope.  Science (2015)


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